South Korea Politics and Law

South Korea, officially Korean Taehan Minguk [dε-], German Republic of Korea, state in East Asia with (2018) 51.6 million residents; The capital is Seoul.

Politics and law

According to, South Korea is a democracy headed by a president. He is directly elected by the people for five years, only one term of office is possible. The President leads the government, the Council of State, and appoints the Prime Minister and Ministers. Laws are passed by parliament, the national assembly. Its 300 MPs are elected every four years. The voting age has been 18 since 2020, previously it was 19. Parliament can recommend that the President dismiss the Prime Minister or Minister. It can also demand the removal of the head of state by a two-thirds majority. However, the Constitutional Court must confirm the impeachment. The nine constitutional judges are appointed by the President for a period of six years.

There are numerous political parties. They often rename and reunite. Government and opposition are usually represented by two large parties. In the parliamentary elections on April 15, 2020, the Democratic Party, which also includes President Moon Jae In (from 2017), won three fifths of the seats. The United Future Party is the largest opposition party.

With 625,000 soldiers, the South Korean army is large in relation to the population. There is compulsory military service, the military service for men averages 21 months. South Korea is closely allied with the USA, which itself has 25,000 soldiers stationed in the country. There is no peace with North Korea, only a ceasefire. Several South Korean governments have tried, particularly since 2000, to relax relations. This only worked temporarily because North Korea has repeatedly tested nuclear weapons and missiles. President Moon met three times with North Korean dictator Kim Jong Un in 2018: twice at the heavily fortified and closed border and once in Pyongyang. South Korea is striving for a peaceful reunification of the two Korean states.

Korean music

Korean music, strong Chinese influences during the Han, Tang and Song periods.

Since the 6th century it has had an impact on the music of Japan, especially through its extensive range of instruments. The autochthonous character of Korean music has not been fully worked out to this day. It only comes to light in folk music and is not based only on linguistically conditioned voice modulations; z. For example, in contrast to Chinese music, Korean music knows ternary time signatures. As part of the Hyangak (Korean music and Chinese music that came to Korea before the Tang period), classical chants, dance and instrumental music as well as original Central Asian jugglers’ pieces and mask games played. Of the aak (elegant music), which originally only included court music of Chinese origin and only later included all court genres, only ritual Confucian music is performed twice a year today. The music treaty »Akhakkwebom«, written in 1493, enabled a reconstruction of the old music with its illustrations. The non-courtly ritual music belongs with the exception of the shaman chants (muak) v. a. the realm of Buddhism. The art song of the literati includes the genres Kagok (Gagok; cyclical lyric chants), Sijo (short lyric chants) and Kasa (Gasa; narrative songs).

Main Cities


Busan, Pusan, Japanese Fusan, city ​​in South Korea, at the confluence of the Nakdonggang in the Korean Strait of the Sea of ​​Japan, in the rank of a province, 760 km 2, (2018) 3.5 million residents, the second largest city in the country.

Catholic bishopric; several universities, merchant marine college, fisheries college, oceanographic college; Museums. Busan is the metropolis of southern South Korea and the country’s leading port (2016: 349.7 million tonnes of handling; deep-water port, partly free port), as well as a fishing port; major trading center, finance (stock exchange); Textile and clothing, shoe, food, electrical, rubber, chemical, pharmaceutical, wood industry, machine, vehicle, shipbuilding; nearby nuclear power plant. Several seaside resorts; Ferry service to Shimonoseki, Fukuoka, Osaka, Kitakyushu and Tsushima (Japan), international airport.

Mentioned as a regional administrative city as early as the 10th century. From the 15th century military base, since then significant trade with Japan. Opened entirely to the Japanese by the Treaty of Ganghwa in 1876, Busan became a strongly Japanese-influenced city after its annexation in 1910 (45% of the population were Japanese in 1935). During the Korean War 1950–53 the seat of government of the Republic of Korea and at the same time the most important supply port for the UNO troops.


Incheon [int ʃ h ʌ n], Inch’ŏn, formerly Chemulp’o [t ʃ -], port city in South Korea, on the Yellow Sea, in the rank of a province, 965 km 2, (2018) 3.0 million residents.

Catholic bishopric; several universities. Incheon is an international traffic center in the metropolitan region of Sudogwon around the capital Seoul, port (including important fishing port) with ferry connections with China (Weihai, Tsingtau, Tientsin, Dalian, Dandong, Shidao, Yantai and Yingkou), most important international airport in South Korea, subway -Connection with Seoul; Free trade zone, logistics companies, finance, biotechnology, aluminum, iron and steel production, shipbuilding, machine and vehicle construction, as well as glass, ceramics, textile and food industries, petroleum refineries.

Incheon, known as the “gateway to the capital” because of its strategic location, was the most important Korean port. It was opened to foreign trade on January 1, 1883 on the basis of the Treaty of Chemulp’o (February 26, 1876). It remained the only port in which a general foreign settlement was established (1884). During the Korean War (1950/53) Incheon became famous for the landing of UN troops under General D. MacArthur in September 1950.


Daegu, Taegu, city ​​in the rank of a province in the southeast of South Korea, in the valley of the Nakdonggang, 886 km 2, (2018) 2.5 million residents.

Also the administrative center of Gyeongsangbuk-do Province; catholic archbishop’s seat; five universities and colleges, museums; Center of the South Korean textile industry, especially the silk industry based on silkworm breeding, also mechanical engineering, metal processing and electrotechnical industry; Trade and transport center, airport, subway.

To the west of Daegu is the Buddhist monastery and temple of Haeinsa (UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1995).


Daejeon [tεd ʒ ʌ n], Taejŏn, city ​​in the rank of a province in western South Korea, 540 km 2, (2018) 1.5 million residents.

Also the administrative seat of Chungcheongnam-do Province; catholic bishopric; University (founded in 1952), space agency, technical university and other universities and research institutions; Machine and vehicle construction, electrotechnical, chemical, textile, clothing and food industries, the Daedeok Innopolis national technology center for high-tech industries is located on the north-western outskirts of the city.

Daejeon hosted Expo 1993 (science park with national science museum). To the west of the city, the Yuseong hot springs are a popular tourist attraction.

South Korea Politics

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