Romania is a diverse and vibrant society that has a rich cultural heritage. The population of Romania is approximately 20 million, with the majority of people being of Romanian ethnicity. The country is also home to minorities such as Hungarians, Roma, and Ukrainians. Romania is predominantly Christian Orthodox, with a small minority of Muslims and other religious denominations.
The official language of Romania is Romanian, which has its roots in Latin and shares many similarities with French and Spanish. English is also spoken by many Romanians as a second language. Romania has a strong tradition of music, art, literature, film and theatre which contributes to its vibrant culture. Its traditional cuisine consists mostly of meat-based dishes such as sarmale (stuffed cabbage rolls) or grilled chicken served with mamaliga (cornmeal porridge).
Romanian society consists mainly of the middle class who have access to education and healthcare services provided by the state. There are also large numbers of people living in poverty due to unemployment or low wages. Education in Romania is compulsory until age 16; public universities are free for all citizens but private institutions are available for those who can afford it. Healthcare services are provided by both public hospitals as well as private clinics; however, there have been some concerns raised about the quality of care received from the public system due to lack of funding and resources.
Demographics of Romania
According to wholevehicles.com, Romania is home to a diverse population of around 20 million people, with the majority of these being Romanian ethnicity. The Hungarian minority is the second largest ethnic group in Romania, making up 6.7% of the population, followed by Roma at 3.3%, Ukrainians at 0.3%, and other minorities such as Germans and Turks making up a small percentage of the population.
The age structure in Romania is quite young, with 23% of the population aged 0-14 years old and 12% aged 65 and over. The median age in Romania is 38 years old, which is lower than most European countries. The gender ratio in Romania is almost equal with 50.6% female and 49.4% male according to the 2011 census data.
The official language spoken by Romanians is Romanian, which has its roots in Latin and shares many similarities with French and Spanish languages. English is also widely spoken as a second language by people living in urban areas such as Bucharest or Cluj-Napoca.
Religion plays an important role in Romanian society, with 86% of Romanians identifying as Christian Orthodox according to the 2011 census data; however, there are also small numbers of Muslims, Protestants, Catholics and other religious denominations present throughout Romania’s diverse society.
The education system in Romania consists mainly of public universities which are free for all citizens aged 18 or over; however, there are also private institutions available for those who can afford them. Healthcare services are provided by both public hospitals as well as private clinics; however, there have been some concerns raised about the quality of care received from the public system due to lack of funding and resources for medical staff salaries or equipment purchases.
Poverty in Romania
Poverty in Romania is a major problem, with more than one-third of the population living below the national poverty line. In 2018, the official poverty rate was estimated to be around 28.9%, with 6.7 million people living in poverty, according to Eurostat data. This is slightly lower than the EU average of 33%.
The highest rates of poverty are found in rural areas, where nearly 40% of people are living in poverty, compared to 25% in urban areas. This is largely due to lack of access to basic services such as healthcare and education, as well as a lack of economic opportunities for employment.
The elderly are particularly vulnerable to poverty, with an estimated 40% aged over 65 living below the national poverty line. Those aged 18-64 are also at risk of falling into poverty due to low wages or unemployment; however, children under 18 have the highest rates of poverty at around 36%.
In addition to economic factors, social exclusion also contributes to high levels of poverty in Romania; for example, Roma communities suffer from higher levels of discrimination which can lead to limited access to education and employment opportunities.
The government has implemented various policies and initiatives aimed at reducing levels of poverty and social exclusion; however, progress has been slow due to inadequate funding for these programs or ineffective implementation strategies. As a result, it is likely that levels of poverty will remain high unless more effective measures are taken by the government.
Labor Market in Romania
According to Countryvv, the labor market in Romania is characterized by a large informal economy, high levels of unemployment, and relatively low wages. According to Eurostat data, the unemployment rate in Romania was 7.4% in 2019. This is significantly higher than the EU average of 6.5%.
Young people are particularly affected by unemployment; the youth unemployment rate was almost three times higher than that of adults in 2019 (20.7% compared to 6.7%). This is partly due to lack of work experience or qualifications, as well as limited access to job opportunities for young people.
The labor market is also characterized by a large informal economy, which accounts for around one-third of total employment according to World Bank data. This means that there are many workers who are not registered with social security and therefore do not benefit from labor protections or social benefits such as health insurance or pensions.
Wages in Romania are relatively low compared to other EU countries; according to Eurostat data, the average gross monthly wage was €888 in 2018, which is significantly lower than the EU average of €2,072. In addition, wages vary significantly between different sectors and regions; for example, wages are generally higher in urban areas and manufacturing sectors than they are in rural areas or services sectors.
In recent years, there have been various reforms aimed at improving the labor market; however, progress has been slow due to inadequate funding for these initiatives or ineffective implementation strategies. As a result, it is likely that levels of unemployment will remain high unless more effective measures are taken by the government.