Abbreviated as NJ on abbreviationfinder.org, New Jersey is one of the North Atlantic states of the American Confederation, of the original thirteen, among the smallest in terms of surface (21,299 sq km), but one of the most populated, both for the absolute number of inhabitants (4.041.334 according to the 1930 census), and for density (190 inhabitants per sq. km.); in this, indeed, it is only surpassed among the states of the Union by Rhode Island and Massachusetts. The territory of New Jersey extends from the Appalachians to the sea, declining from a hilly region that does not reach 500 m. (northeast.) high up to the coastal plain, closed between the mouths of the Hudson and Delaware, which forms the greater part of it. The coastal strip is for large areas covered with lagoons and marshes, and its Atlantic margin, interlocked by an almost continuous edge of coastal strips, is badly suited to the creation of ports,
The climate, despite the proximity of the sea, has fairly clear continental characteristics. Atlantic City average temperatures give: 11 °, 1 ° for the year and 22 ° for the hottest month; January does not drop below 0 °. Precipitation is abundant (1070 mm. In the same location) and well distributed.
Visited by Verazzano and others, New Jersey was permanently occupied in 1638 by the Swedes, who settled on the right of the Delaware, but had to surrender to the Dutch in 1655. From 1643 to 1645 the settlers had to face the Indians who had risen threateningly. New Jersey followed the fate of New York. But when the English took possession of it, it was sparsely populated; the Dutch have not left as deep traces there as in their sister colony. The Duke of York, after having sent Colonel Richard Nicolls to govern his territory, gave Sir George Carteret (former governor of the island of Jersey in the Channel) and Lord John Berkeley all the lands between the Hudson and Delaware rivers. up to the 41st parallel north, thus forever mutilating the beautiful port of New York with an arbitrary division. The Nicolls understood the gravity of the matter, but the donation was made, and only succeeded with a quibble to save Staten Island for the duke. Nicolls, who interpreted the donation as patrimonial and not territorial, had already made concessions in New Jersey, and a series of quarrels arose, which the duke resolved unfavorably for Nicolls. From 1673 to 1674 New Jersey returned, like New York, again under the Dutch. The Carteret was reconfirmed by the crown in the possession of its eastern half, but having the Berkeley surrendered its rights to a group of Quakers, the new governor Edmund Andros refused to recognize them as the owners of western Jersey. But in 1676 a new division was made, and the various suitors were reconfirmed. In 1680 Andros tried to expel Carteret, but his action was deplored in England, and Carteret reinstated in its rights. Two years later, however, he was forced by his creditors to sell the province at public auction, which was bought by William Penn and 11 of his partners for 3,400 pounds. They ceded half of their rights to 12 other owners. In 1665 Berkeley and Carteret had established a kind of statute, called “Concession and Agreement”, which provided for an assembly of citizens with the right to collect taxes. The new owners then sent in 1683 a new document, called “Fundamental Statutes”, which established for the colony a government composed of a governor, chosen by the owners, a council of owners ‘delegates with 12 citizens and a large council composed of owners’ delegates with 144 citizens. However, this statute was never applied. After James II’s attempt to unify all his colonies and after his fall, the two Jerseys knew almost absolute anarchy for 5 years, 1688-92, and after another 10 years of confusion the owners gave up their sovereignty to the crown in 1702, remaining masters of the land, and the two Jersey could be united under a royal government. At the outbreak of the revolution New Jersey took a decisive side against the king, and in the spring of 1776 its provincial congress deposed the governor and established (on July 3) an autonomous government. The action of Christmas of the same year, in which Washington crossed the Delaware at Trenton and fully defeated three regiments of Assiani, and the consequent victory at Princeton are among the main battles of the revolution. During the summer and autumn of 1783 the Federal Congress held its sessions in a building of the famous Princeton University (v.). Aware of its small size, New Jersey has always fought for the rights of small states. During the formation of the Union its delegates presented a project, the New Jersey has always fought for the rights of small states. During the formation of the Union its delegates presented a project, the New Jersey Plan, for a government of a single House, with only one delegate for each state, of which only trace remains in the statute the equal representation of the states in the Senate. The outdated New Jersey statute, with exaggerated restrictions on the right to vote and too broad powers to the governor, was only reformed in 1844. The government of the state after the fall of the federalists in 1800 has almost always been “democratic” with short intervals ” republicans “, as from 1896 to 1911. Only one governor, Wilson, became president of the Union. The first capitals of the colony were Perth Amboy and Burlington; from 1790 Trenton. Every year one third of the senate is renewed, and the whole assembly. The state sends 12 representatives to the federal chamber.
According to countryaah.com, Trenton is a city of the USA (82,883 residents In 2008), and capital of the State of New Jersey, at the end point of navigation on the river Delaware, near the river rapids. Large industrial center, with metallurgical, mechanical, chemical, pharmaceutical, plastics and tobacco factories.
From 1679 to 1685 a settler establishment was established on the site which was called The Falls and assumed its present name at the beginning of the following century. December 26, 1776 G. Washington surprised you and beat the English of col. J. Rall. T. became the capital of New Jersey in 1790.