According to localcollegeexplorer, the colonial period began in Uruguay in the 16th century. after the penetration of the Spaniards (for the first time in 1515). The war for independence against the colonial rule of the Spaniards was led by H.H. Artigas (victory in 1811 over the Spanish troops at Las Piedras). After liberation from the Spanish, and in 1815 from the Argentine troops, Uruguay (the country received such a name from 1815, before that – the East Coast) was occupied by Portugal (1817). In 1821 it was annexed to Brazil under the name Sisplatine Province. In 1825 the Uruguayan patriots declared independence from Brazil, but only in 1828 did Argentina and Brazil recognize their independence. On July 18, 1830, the 1st Constitution of the independent Eastern Republic was adopted.
In the 2nd floor. 19th century the penetration of British capital into Uruguay increased, which contributed to the development of capitalist relations. Immigrants poured into the country, mainly from Italy and Spain, who began to replenish the middle class of artisans and merchants. In 1926, Uruguay was the first in South America to establish diplomatic relations with the USSR, which were severed in 1935 during the dictatorship of G. Terra (1933–38). During World War II, the government of Uruguay broke off diplomatic relations with the Axis powers (1942), and in February 1945 declared war on fascist Germany and Japan. In 1943 diplomatic relations with the USSR were restored.
In the new post-war world, British imperialism is losing ground in Uruguay, this vacuum is being filled by American capital. There is a noticeable development of industry in the country, the strengthening of the public sector. Unable to cope with economic difficulties, the ruling bourgeois parties that succeeded each other in power increasingly resorted to repressions against democratic forces. To a large extent, under the influence of the international situation against the backdrop of the Cold War, the activities of the terrorist left-wing extremist organization Tupamaros (founded in the mid-1960s by student Raul Sendik) are unfolding. This organization had nothing to do with the communists and was based on representatives of the middle class. President Bordaberry, who took office in 1972, declared a state of emergency in the country under the pretext of combating the Tupamaros terrorist attacks. In 1973, the influence of the armed forces in political life increased significantly. In June 1973, President Bordaberry staged a coup d’état, parliament was dissolved, political activity was banned, and the Constitution was repealed.
The period from June 27, 1973 to March 1, 1985 is known as the period of the dictatorship, or civil-military regime. The inability of the military to overcome difficult economic problems, the general dissatisfaction with the regime forced to hold general elections in 1984. Decrees of the military regime on the restriction of freedom of the press and the activities of political parties were canceled.
In the general election in November 1989, the candidate of the Blanco party, L.A., was elected president. Lacalle. The proportion of traditional parties is decreasing due to the growth of left-wing parties, whose share in the elections was 30.2% of the vote. The 1994 elections showed that the country’s political system began to be clearly divided into three parts. The Colorado Party received 32.3% of the vote, the National Party 31.2% and the Broad Front 30.6%.
An important result of the work of the coalition of the parties “Colorado” and “Blanco” was the election in 1999 to the presidency of the party “Colorado” H. Batlier (52.5%), who, with the support of the electorate “Blanco”, defeated the representative of the PVSHF (Progressive choice – Wide front) by T. Vasquez (44.5%).
Foreign policy is based on the doctrine of “concentrating circles”. The efforts of Uruguayan diplomacy are focused on the MERCOSUR near abroad zone, followed by other Latin American countries, the United States, Western Europe and the rest of the world in order of importance. Uruguay is a member of the most important continental and regional organizations, a party to major multilateral agreements, incl. Treaty of Tlatelolco, which created a nuclear-free zone more than 30 years ago. The main objects of Uruguay’s activity are the issues of strengthening democratic traditions on the Latin American continent, the problems of economic integration and globalization, countering drug trafficking and organized crime. In relation to the United States, Uruguay takes a traditionally independent position. The strategic direction of President H.
The armed forces consist of the Ground Forces, the Navy (including sea-based aviation, the Coast Guard, the Marines), the Air Force, and the police. The total number of the Armed Forces, taking into account civilian personnel, is 58 thousand people, incl. in the Ground Forces – 17 thousand people, the Air Force – 3 thousand and the Navy – 4.5 thousand people. (2002). The armed forces are being recruited. The traditional suppliers of military equipment in Uruguay are Western European countries (Great Britain, Spain, Italy, the Czech Republic and Poland).
Uruguay has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1926).