Abbreviated as AZ on abbreviationfinder.org, Arizona is one of the south-western states of the North American Union, bordering south with Mexico. to O. with California and Nevada, to north with Utah and to east with New Mexico. It is between 31 ° 20 ‘and 37 ° of lat. N. and between 109 ° 3 ‘and 114 ° 54’ long. O. Since its boundaries largely coincide with meridians and parallels (only to the west they are made up for the most part by the course of the Colorado), Arizona assumes a distinctly trapezoidal shape. It has an area of 295,168 sq km. (almost as much as the Kingdom of Italy) and a population (1920) of 334,000 residents, that is 1.7 per square kilometer. By surface, therefore, it is in fifth place among the states of the North American Union, while by population it is in one of the last places.
It includes to the north a part of the Colorado Plateau, consisting mainly of anthracolithic and Mesozoic rocks, covered by tertiary, lake and terrestrial sedimentations, high from 1200 to 2200 m. and surmounted by mountain ranges directed mainly from the northwest to the SE., with steep sides and bare of vegetation, due to the very arid climate, limited by gorges and picturesque gorges (cañones). Colorado (v.) Dug a cañón in the plateau very famous, to north of which rises the M. Trumbull (2550 meters). Even higher peaks are found right in the center of Arizona (MS Francisco, 3900 meters). The Colorado plateau descends very steeply towards the Rio Gila valley, at the south of which lies the desert of the same name, a region from 200 to 1000 meters high, partly flat, partly mountainous, very arid. The SE corner. of Arizona includes the extreme northern part of those reliefs that in Mexico have the name of Sierra Madre Occidentale, reliefs between which open the valleys of San Pedro, a tributary of the Gila, and of Santa Cruz, which ends when crossing the desert.
As already mentioned, Arizona has a very arid climate. On the Colorado Plateau there are annual average temperatures that are close to those of the northern states of the Union (20 ° -33 °), but without the extremes that are noted in those. Precipitation is very scarce, mostly below 500 mm.; only in the higher parts is this figure exceeded. The lower southern Arizona has average annual temperatures that are close to those of the coastal regions of the Gulf of Mexico. The Gila Valley is one of the hottest regions in the globe, with maximums in July of over 500. Phoenix, the capital, located at 346 meters above sea level, has an average annual temperature of 22 °, 3, in July of 32 °, 5, in January of 10th, 2. Precipitation amounts to 170 mm. only.
In southwestern Arizona, rainfall at no point exceeds 150 millimeters. According to Hann, rainfall in Arizona would be predominantly summer (34.8% of the total amount) and winter (30.1%). The least rainy season would be spring (15.2%).
Due to the aridity of the climate, Arizona is crossed by a few perennial rivers, such as the Colorado and its tributary Gila; the other streams are dry for most of the year. Some areas are completely devoid of river drainage, others have river drainage that does not reach the sea.
The first to come to Arizona (indigenous word meaning “place of the massacre”) were the Spaniards in 1538, who found the curious civilizations of the Hopi and Pueblo Indians in Arizona. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries some Jesuit and Franciscan missions arose, with some garrison of Spanish troops to defend the missionaries against the Apache Indians. However, the Spaniards left very slight traces in the Arizonese desert, where they penetrated more and more frequently in the first quarter of the century. XIX the same American pioneers and adventurers who were to occupy and liberate Texas. After the war of 1847, Mexico had to cede the territory north of the Gila River to the United States; in 1854 the Americans bought a tract of land at south (Gadsden purchase) to find a more suitable line for the Californian railway. In 1861 the Arizonesi joined the secessionists, but were beaten by the feds who came from California. Only in 1863 did Arizona split from the vast region of New Mexico, and an Arizona Territory was created (federal regime, without, however, autonomous privileges). In 1906 New Mexico wanted to reunite all over Arizona to form one large state within the Union. The proposal was rejected by Arizona, which in 1911 formulated its own constitution with a distinctly democratic tendency (direct popular legislation), and was recognized as a state in 1912 (February 14). The cultural spirit is that of the American “West”, with a certain southern flair. Arizona (federal regime, without, however, autonomous privileges). In 1906 New Mexico wanted to reunite all over Arizona to form one large state within the Union. The proposal was rejected by Arizona, which in 1911 formulated its own constitution with a distinctly democratic tendency (direct popular legislation), and was recognized as a state in 1912 (February 14). The cultural spirit is that of the American “West”, with a certain southern flair. and was recognized as a state in 1912 (February 14). The cultural spirit is that of the American “West”, with a certain southern flair. and was recognized as a state in 1912 (February 14). The cultural spirit is that of the American “West”, with a certain southern flair.
According to countryaah.com, Phoenix is a city of the USA (1,567,924 residents In 2008), and capital of Arizona, located on the right bank of the river Salt, 330 m asl Founded in 1867, it succeeded Prescott as the capital of the territory in 1889 and became the capital of the state in 1912. The aerospace industries are of great importance, the location of which was determined by the presence in the area of important military installations; mechanical, chemical, textile and food industries also developed. Starting from the last decade of the 20th century, the advanced tertiary and financial services sectors are expanding. The city is also an active commercial center for agricultural products and an important communications hub.