Alabama Facts and History

Abbreviated as AL on, Alabama, together with Coosa, has a course about km long. 1400 and is navigable up to Montgomery. The boats that make traffic on the river carry mostly cotton.

River of North America. It is formed from the union of the Coosa and the Tallapoosa, which originate in the southern Alleghani. The confluence occurs at north of Montgomery. Alabama flows, forming wide meanders, in the direction of the south west.; it joins, a short distance from the Gulf of Mexico, with the Tombigbee, and thus forms the Mobile River, at the mouth of which the city of the same name has risen.

The river takes its name from one of the United States organized into a territory in 1817 and constituted in a state in 1819.

It is located between 35 ° of lat. N. and the Gulf of Mexico (30 ° 13 ′) and between 84 ° 65 ′, and 88 ° 28 ′ long. O. Its maximum length from north to south is km. 530, and its width, from east to west, of km. 332, with an area of ​​approximately 135,000 square kilometers.

The state is divided into 67 counties, and these are divided into approximately 1335 districts. Most counties also include cities (or “municipalities”) – about 300 across the state.

Rocks of almost all ages are found in Alabama.

The crystalline ones, mostly pre-Cambrian, occupy a triangular area, of about 13,000 sq. Km., Which is located to the east of the middle part of the state and then extends towards the northeast ; in them are found gold, graphite, mica, pyrite and other less important minerals. Paleozoic rocks of various ages extend to the west of the area occupied by crystalline rocks, beyond the borders of the state. The Cambric, Ordovician and Siluric strata are mainly made up of limestone; the Silurico is the richest soil in iron minerals, the Mississippi area is mostly limestone, and that of Pennsylvania includes vast coal-bearing areas. Less important minerals, found in Paleozoic deposits, are bauxite, clay and sandstone. The layers of the Cretaceous period form a belt of about km. 80 wide, which flanks the oldest rocks, from the northwest corner. of the state up to the middle of the eastern limit and much further south. They are very thin beds of sand, clay, clayey limestone, slightly inclined towards the south; they provide earthenware clays and cements. The Tertiary and Quaternary strata extend to the south of the Cretaceous area, as far as the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico; they consist of sands, clays, limestones, marls, sandstones, etc. Mineral products are not important; but both the Tertiary and the Cretaceous period give remarkable sources of drinking water, which is obtained by means of artesian wells pushed to an average depth of 100 meters.

The state of Alabama has a remarkably rich history: during the colonial period, rivalry between the English, French, Spanish; later, fights between Whites, Indians and Spaniards, between state and federal government, between Whites and Blacks. For the Spaniards, established since 1508 in Sant’Agostino, the lands of the Alibamu Indians (“those of the glades”) belonged to Florida. But, in 1682, La Salle, coming down the Mississippi from Canada, proclaimed French dominion over all the land east of the left bank of that river, and in 1699 Iberville founded a city on the present site of Mobile. Meanwhile, the English colonists, pushing on the continent from the Carolines, obtained the same territories as a gift from Charles II of England (1664). To these ancient deceptions, worsened rather than not by various treaties made in Europe even during the Napoleonic period, Alabama owes the possession of the Bay of Mobile (detached from Louisiana by the Treaty of Paris, 1763), its curious borders towards Florida (Treaty of Versailles, 1783), and that of SE. along the Chattahoochee (Paris, 1763). The geometric ones towards Georgia and Tennessee date back to the creation, by the United States (1817), of the Alabama territory, with an autonomous federal regime.

Meanwhile, during the century, three powerful Indian tribes, the Creek, the Chikasaw and the Choctaw, occupied most of the forests of Alabama, in peace with the Whites, by virtue of both agreements made in ancient times (1737) with Oglethorpe, founder of Georgia, and of treaties signed after 1781 with the United States government. The rapid influx of white settlers after 1800 was frowned upon by the Indians, also stirred up by Spanish agents from Florida, and, on the eve of the 1812 war, by British agents (Tecumseh and others). In the years 1812-14, the Creek entered the war against the Whites, to succumb to the blows of the future president Jackson, then general, hero of the battle of New Orleans, who, in his furious campaigns, had no restraint of ‘ hang British agents and invade Spanish territories when it suited him. Alabama entered the Union as a state in 1819. But the Indians, protected by Washington, still resided there, albeit with very small territories. The new Alabamese, people accustomed to harshly treating the inferior races, undoubtedly abolished, in 1832, the reserves (Reservations) Indian. The federal government gave adequate compensation to the Chikasaws and Chictaws, assigning them land in the new Indian territory (Oklahoma), and Alabama then took that habit of arguing as a sovereign state with Washington, which it had to abandon, if ever, only with the defeat of the Southerners in 1865.

In fact, the doctrine of the so-called nullification (right of the state government to make laws and to act contrary to the federal government), which arose in Alabama regarding the Indians, had to reaffirm itself daily in that state in the following years, with respect to the black slave. Not only did Alabama base its great prosperity, between 1830 and 1860, on slavery, but its blacks reproduced with extraordinary exuberance. Alabama had to advocate American imperialism towards the O. and the SO., to create a market for the export of slaves. Not that white Alabama lacked liberal elements at the time; indeed, these seem to have been in the majority. But an aristocratic minority of men, like WL Yancey, superior in wealth, in intelligence, out of a combative spirit informed to the conscience of race, he made Alabama the Massachusetts of the slaveholding secession. The capital of Alabama became (1861) the capital of the Confederation; the proclamation of secession started from Montgomery; and from Montgomery the constitution of the new slave republic was issued. Alabama gave it all to the civil war: all its wealth and all its best blood. To the lost cause of the South he supplied generals, engineers, statesmen, admirals (Forest, Wheeler, Longstreet, Semmes, Mason). The famous Confederate privateers left for the seven seas of the world from the port of Mobile. Alabama suffered the devastation of 1863; unhappily fought the desperate campaign of Mobile (1864). Therefore Alabama grudgingly accepted the results of the Civil War. Re-admitted as a state of the Union in 1868, it redesigned its state constitution three times (1868, 1875, 1909), and finally found the formula (the so-called “Grandfather’s Law”), to exclude Blacks from political life. In Alabama, in fact, the struggle of the races presents itself with all its characteristic features: complete separation of Blacks and Whites in social life, in institutions, even in the enjoyment of public services (railways, hotels, theaters, etc.); complete submission of Blacks to Whites in all forms of life; caste distinctions supported by violent manifestations of white public opinion. Slowly, however, but with a happy outcome, Alabama has been able to change its economic life, from the slave base to the base of free labor.


According to, Montgomery is the capital of the state of Alabama (United States) and capital of Montgomery County, on the Alabama River, at the beginning of its navigability. The city was founded in 1817 under the name of New Philadelphia, and took its present name in 1819. From February to May 1861 it was the seat of the Confederate government. It has an average annual temperature of 18 °, 3 (winter average 9 °, 5; summer average 27 °, 2); the rains add up to 1270 mm. per year (winter 28%; spring 30%; summer 26%; autumn 16%). The population has risen from 2179 residents in 1840 to 16,713 in 1880, to 30,346 in 1900, to 38,136 in 1910, to 43,464 in 1920, to 66,079 in 1930 (45.4% of color). The city is located in a very important district for cotton growing: its industries counted 73 factories with 2284 workers in 1909, which rose to 99 and 3356 respectively in 1929. The value of production has risen from $ 5.4 million to $ 21.6 million: alongside the industries related to cotton, the railways must be mentioned. The city is home to several educational institutions (Woman’s College of Alabama; State Normal School for Negroes, etc.), the State of Alabama Department of Archives and History, the Alabama State Supreme Court Library. It is a very active railway junction. About 2.5 km. from the city is the Maxwell military airport.

Alabama Facts and History

About the author